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      author       = {N. Dimou and J. Yarmolinsky and E. Bouras and K. K.
                      Tsilidis and R. M. Martin and S. J. Lewis and I. T. Gram and
                      M. F. Bakker and H. Brenner$^*$ and J. C. Figueiredo and R.
                      Turzanski-Fortner$^*$ and S. B. Gruber and B. Van Guelpen
                      and L. Hsu and R. Kaaks$^*$ and S.-S. Kweon and Y. Lin and
                      N. M. Lindor and P. A. Newcomb and M.-J. Sanchez-Perez and
                      G. Severi and H. A. Tindle and R. Tumino and E. Weiderpass
                      and M. J. Gunter and N. Murphy},
      title        = {{C}ausal effects of lifetime smoking on breast and
                      colorectal cancer risk: {M}endelian randomization study.},
      journal      = {Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers $\&$ prevention},
      volume       = {30},
      number       = {5},
      issn         = {1538-7755},
      address      = {Philadelphia, Pa.},
      publisher    = {AACR},
      reportid     = {DKFZ-2021-00533},
      pages        = {953-964},
      year         = {2021},
      note         = {30(5):953-964},
      abstract     = {Observational evidence has shown that smoking is a risk
                      factor for breast and colorectal cancer. We used Mendelian
                      randomization (MR) to examine causal associations between
                      smoking and risks of breast and colorectal
                      cancer.Genome-wide association study summary data were used
                      to identify genetic variants associated with lifetime amount
                      of smoking (n=126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly
                      (n=112 variants). Using two-sample MR, we examined these
                      variants in relation to incident breast (122,977
                      cases/105,974 controls) and colorectal cancer (52,775
                      cases/45,940 controls).In inverse-variance weighted models,
                      a genetic predisposition to higher lifetime amount of
                      smoking was positively associated with breast cancer risk
                      [odds ratio [OR] per 1-standard deviation (SD) increment:
                      1.13 $(95\%$ confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.26); P: 0.04];
                      although heterogeneity was observed. Similar associations
                      were found for estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen
                      receptor-negative tumors. Higher lifetime amount of smoking
                      was positively associated with colorectal cancer [OR per
                      1-SD increment: 1.21 $(95\%$ CI: 1.04-1.40); P: 0.01], colon
                      cancer [OR: 1.31 $(95\%$ CI: 1.11-1.55); P: <0.01], and
                      rectal cancer [OR: 1.36 $(95\%$ CI: 1.07-1.73); P: 0.01].
                      Ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risks
                      of breast [OR: 1.01 $(95\%$ CI: 0.90-1.14); P: 0.85] or
                      colorectal cancer [OR: 0.97 $(95\%$ CI: 0.86-1.10); P:
                      0.68].These findings are consistent with prior observational
                      evidence and support a causal role of higher lifetime
                      smoking amount in the development of breast and colorectal
                      cancer.The results from this comprehensive MR analysis
                      indicate that lifetime smoking is a causal risk factor for
                      these common malignancies.},
      cin          = {C070 / C120 / HD01 / C020},
      ddc          = {610},
      cid          = {I:(DE-He78)C070-20160331 / I:(DE-He78)C120-20160331 /
                      I:(DE-He78)HD01-20160331 / I:(DE-He78)C020-20160331},
      pnm          = {313 - Krebsrisikofaktoren und Prävention (POF4-313)},
      pid          = {G:(DE-HGF)POF4-313},
      typ          = {PUB:(DE-HGF)16},
      pubmed       = {pmid:33653810},
      doi          = {10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1218},
      url          = {https://inrepo02.dkfz.de/record/167769},